Berling, Ingrid, Nicholas A. Buckley, Ahmed Mostafa, Michael A. Downes, Jeffrey Grice, Gregory Medley, Michael S. Roberts, and Geoffrey K. Isbister. "2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and bromoxynil herbicide death." Clinical Toxicology 53, no. 5 (2015): 486-488.
Case report. We report a fatal case of a 37 year old gentleman who ingested a MCPA/bromoxynil co-formulation herbicide. Although clinically well on initial examination, our patient declined dramatically over his 18 h admission with increasing CO2 production, hyperthermia and metabolic derangement to eventually die from cardiac asystole 20 h post ingestion. Two hours after ingestion the MCPA concentration was 83.9 μg/mL and bromoxynil concentration was 137 μg/mL. Discussion. The patients’ mechanism of death appeared to be uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, excess CO2 production and hyperthermia. There is limited knowledge on the acute toxicity of these herbicides, in particular bromoxynil, and this case highlights the relentless progression of severe toxicity in humans.